Already in the folk recipes of our ancestors it was possible to find plant extracts, which were used as one of the oldest forms of medicine. Today, the extracts are used not only in the pharmaceutical industry, but also in the food and cosmetics industries.
An extract is an extract from plants with a liquid, solid or viscous consistency, usually obtained from dried or fresh plants (traditional plant). In some preparations, the plant may be subjected to a pre-treatment such as milling. Extracts are prepared by extraction using water, ethanol or another suitable solvent. After extraction, undesired substances are removed, if necessary, by filtration or other separation methods.
The process of extracting active substances from plants
Extraction of active substances from plants is a physico-chemical separation process, the aim of which is to transfer these substances present in plants (solid phase) to the extract using a suitable solvent (water, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin). The result is the formation of 2 phases: a liquid extract and a solid residue after extraction (matrix).
Liquid extracts can be prepared to prepare the above using liquid solutions (water, ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin) or by dissolving a concentrated or dry extract in one of these liquid devices. Filtering may be required. During the condition, a slight sediment may form, which is acceptable when the mixture has not changed significantly. Liquid extracts may contain suitable antimicrobial preservatives.
Liquid extracts are divided according to the solvent used into alcohol extracts, aqueous extracts, propylene glycol extracts.
Concentrated (dense) extracts are preparations with a viscous consistency obtained by partial evaporation of the liquid solvent (water, ethanol) used for production. The concentrated extracts usually have a dry matter content of more than 50% by weight. They may contain suitable antimicrobial preservatives.
Dry extracts are solid / powder preparations obtained by evaporating the solvent used for their production in the spray-drying process. The dry extracts generally have a dry matter content of more than 95% by weight.